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Emphasizing mobilization from below rather than Gleichschaltung from above, it also took a more ambivalent stance toward the material rewards of the revolution, amounting to a Marxist form of inner-worldly asceticism. Continuing revolution always took top priority on the political agenda by leadership consensus, and though this left ample room for disagreement over specific policy implications, it had a perceptible impact on the political atmosphere, at times seeming to make China the "spark" in an international class or generation war and generally giving her an international ificance exceeding her economic or military capabilities. Even at this writing, the history of continuing revolution enlightens and obscures China's past, spurs and guides her present, haunts her future. Yet if continuing the revolution has been taken seriously as a theoretical innovation, it has not hitherto attracted scholarly attention as a political phenomenon. Perhaps this neglect may be attributed to the trees and forest illusion, or to the reluctance to tackle an issue in medias res.
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See Zhengming [Contend], no. The subjective dimension of charisma is secondary, consisting of the personal means necessary to perform the end. Yet it was inimical to charismatic leadership, and the new family organization would once eextreme be challenged during the Cultural Revolution, as the younger generation was encouraged to renounce the elder. From the point of view of the Party, it generated an incessant tension between the officials' "forgetting" their charismatic origins the class struggle, the revolution and the consequent need for 70970 Party to "remind" them.
They will smash all the trammels that bind them and rush forward along the road to liberation. With respect to the anti-Communist die-hards, ours is a revolutionary dual policy of uniting with them, insofar as they are still in favor of resisting Japan, and of isolating them, insofar as they are determined to oppose the Communist Party. In the course of the remarkable initial successes and concluding failures of this phase, the residual structure began losing credibility as a target, while at the same time the more aversive features of the emergent CPC regime were becoming more visible.
But in no other revolution in history has this attempt been as protracted, thoroughgoing, and consequential as in the Chinese case. The third functional requisite is a mobilizable mass constituency. A charismatic leader should have the imagination to conceive a salvationary mission and the latitude to exercise that imaginationand adequate symbolic skills to communicate i. Succinctly put, revolution is the smashing of the structure of political authority.
Undoubtedly I bring my share of biases to the topic, but it would probably require psychoanalysis to discover and sort them out: my feelings are mixed. Aside from its representative and legislative functions, the main task of the bureaucracy was planning and managing economic development.
Insofar as they are pro-Japanese, our policy is to struggle against them and isolate them, but insofar as they vacillate, our policy is to draw them nearer to us and win them over. The Universities Service Center in Hong Kong hospitably provided office space and research assistance for the interviews conducted there.
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The assumption that leadership resides in an extraordinary individual has deep roots in Chinese culture, perhaps even being theological in origin—as in Dong Zhongshu's exttreme of the cosmic mediating role of the "son of heaven. The third explanation, on the other hand, views the post-Mao changes as marking the end of the epoch of continuing revolution and the dawning of a new era. The one book to have appeared under this title—John Starr's Continuing the Revolution : The Political Thought of Mao Princeton: Princeton University Press, —is actually devoted to a comprehensive treatment of Mao's Thought, also from a "theoretical" point of view.
These three chapters are based on a relatively comprehensive collection of primary and secondary sources, supplemented by interviews with former participants.
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The new world to be constructed envisaged a new network of primary-group relationships, sqx penetrated by a central political apparatus and integrally linked to a public ownership and planning system. Commodity grain had ly been disproportionately produced by rich peasants and landlords, who disposed of larger plots with better equipment and conditions and were hence able to practice commercial agriculture.
My thinking has benefited from conversations with Doak Barnett, Vic Falkenheim, Avery Goldstein, Harry Harding, Andrew  The minimal requirement in my selection was that the informant had lived through the Cultural Revolution. Due to a dearth of relevant scholarly literature, and because developments during this period are so crucial to our understanding of how the prerequisites of revolution were ultimately exhausted, these developments receive scrutiny in no fewer than three chapters.
This prioritization may have been perhaps partly due to a extree commitment to the Red Army's largely peasant constituency, but it also reflected the fact that until industrial production d there would be no "pie" to "slice," whereas in the countryside farmland was a fungible resource whose redistribution provided its own incentive.
With that, the socialist transformation of the private economic sector, a process originally slated datr completion within fifteen years, had been achieved in only a third of that time. If this essay is correct in asing overriding importance to the effort to continue the revolution during the first three decades after the seizure of power, such ambivalence is understandable.
It is also true, as we shall see in chapter 3, that Mao was the foremost advocate of the micro-equivalent of storming at the level of personal ideological conversion. In January another "high tide" appeared, this time for the public-private t management of all enterprises, and transformation to socialist ownership was essentially completed by the end of The successes achieved during this period not only convinced the leaders of the basic correctness of the policy course they had set but imparted the sense of self-confidence that later allowed them to depart from this course, steering the revolution into new and more hazardous waters.
The chaotic form it took thereafter was not simply a manifestation of the ineluctable antithesis between heroic and mundane, sacred and profane, but also a case of tactical scapegoating to salvage legitimacy amid terminal disagreement over mission. Of the land that changed hands, two-thirds came from landlords and less than one-third from rich peasants; less than two-thirds of that land went to poor peasants, on the other hand, while over a third went to middle peasants.
A big portrait of the Chairman was kept over the long altar table where the ancestral tablets had once been kept, with photographs of the family grouped around the portrait. The first would attribute change to an oscillatory pattern that has long characterized the Chinese policy process.
People do not daye revolt simply because they are deprived, either absolutely or relatively, according to this conceptualization; sqx, some degree of mass deprivation may well facilitate a loss of faith in the legitimacy of the incumbent regime if persuasive arguments are presented to link that deprivation to the prevailing structure of authority.
You see, there are ten fingers of which the state has control over eight and a half. Yet continue it did, following its own implacable logic. During the chairmanship of Liu Shaoqi —64the NPC did at times examine proposals on economic development programs before giving its approval, and at least on one occasion the Fourth Session of the First NPC, in JuneNPC delegates even criticized Mao in relation to the Anti-Rightist movement and the Party's handling of university affairs in Shanghai.
Prospectus The sweeping policy reversals of the post-Mao period may be historically comprehended in one of at least three ways.
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For example, it was reported in by the National Committee for Thorough Implementation that more than seventy-five thousand deaths or suicides in one year could be attributed to marriage differences, and implementation slackened. To trail behind them gesticulating and criticizing? How was it possible for the revolution to be sustained for so long?
We are talking about industry. The reasons for both the shift from extremf engineering to the storming approach and for the calamitous of the latter arose from changes in the subjective dimension of charismatic leadership, to be examined next.
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In November the Chongqing Philosophical Society convened a symposium to discuss the feudal legacy, the proceedings of which appeared in Guonei Zhexue Dongtai [Philosophical trends in China], no. It seemed clear that the best way to forestall consolidation of small-scale family farms, realize the economies of scale of ambitious hydraulic engineering and agricultural mechanization projects, and at the same time ensure an uninterrupted supply of commodity grain was through collectivization.
There are several variants of oscillatory explanation, the most popular of which is the bivariate "two-line struggle" model: policy is under constant contention between "moderate" and "radical" elites, and the policy "line" oscillates according to factional vicissitudes. This occurred on the one hand due to a process of reverse cooptation : those Party leaders sent to manage a bureaucratic organ tended to adopt the organizational interests of that organ as their own, and to represent those interests in Party policymaking councils.
Emphasizing mobilization from below rather than Gleichschaltung datte above, it also took a more ambivalent stance toward the material rewards of the dage, amounting to a Marxist form of inner-worldly asceticism. The regime has, however, endeavored to divest such feudal relics of their former content; for example, in the Qingming festival, the traditional holiday for sweeping out and worshiping at ancestral graves, was renamed the "Memorial Day for Revolutionary Martyrs," thus giving socialist respectability to what was inherited from tradition while at the same time paving the way for change to new forms of grave ritual.
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Thus inhe asserted his right to final approval over all CC directives: "From now on, all documents and telegrams sent exhreme in the name of the CC can be dispatched only after I have gone over them, otherwise they are invalid. These measures largely demolished the lineage as an effective political entity, though it was to experience a limited revival during the Cultural Revolution as a basis for factional affiliation particularly in smaller rural communities.
Utopia in Communist Policy," in Chalmers Johnson, ed. This is not to say that there were not other important concerns competing for attention—one thinks for example of the drive for international status and autonomy, or national economic reconstruction.
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From such disasters as the Autumn Harvest, Nanchang, and Canton revolts the Party had learned not to attempt everything at once but to set clear priorities, husband its forces, and proceed in stages. But some informants were older, some female, some from other regions of China, some emigrated legally, some had functioned as criticism targets or radical activists. As long as the person playing the role of revolutionary sage-king adhered to the inner-Party rules of consensual decision-making, all i.